Eutropius, when he set out to write his Breviarium Historiae Romanae, was writing a handbook of Roman history. It was intended for provincial governors and military leaders, who had to quickly learn an overview of Roman history in order to mix with the leaders from Rome, the heart of the Empire. Because of his audience, Eutropius writes in clear, standard classical Latin. He uses most common grammatical constructions, and his vocabulary is relatively simple and consists primarily of the most common words of Latin.
This construction consists of a noun or pronoun with a participle (or an adjective or second noun) in order to
define the time or circumstance of an action.
In these selections from the Breviarum, Eutropius generally uses ablative absolutes temporally. He frequently uses them to express a date.
For example, Breviarium IV.26.1, Eutropius writes,
Cities, small islands, domus, humus, and rus do not use the ablative to denote place where. Instead, they appear in the locative.
These nouns express place to which with an ablative without a preposition, and they express place from which with an accusative without a preposition.
In order to express agency, i.e., the person who does the action, instead of using an ablative with the preposition ab
Eutropius instead uses per plus an accusative (sometimes).
For example, Breviarium IV.27.4, Eutropius writes,
In addition to the necessarily impersonal verbs (licet, decet, oportet, etc.) Eutropius frequently uses intransitive verbs (ones which do not take a direct object) impersonally. In this use, we find the 3rd person singular passive form with no subject, but often with a/ab and an agent. These can be tricky to render in English,